is a big fan of Jan III Sobieski. Today’s meme, a continuing meme in this blog came about because Valerie Warunek had posted about Digital Library of Polish and Poland Related News Pamplets. That mention of a new library launched me on another research adventure. When I was looking up other things in Leszno, for Hyam Salomon, I found a Latin text related to Jan Sobieski. This jester loves Jan Sobieski’s letters, particularly those to his beloved wife. This document recounted his victory of 1673 of the Battle of Chocim and was a missive to the pope. This would be a pattern for King Jan III ‘s future battles — letters before and after battle. After the battle, a missive was sent to the pope. King Jan III was a good Catholic monarch.
He claimed the Triumphant Crown in the Name of Poland and the Polish Eagle.
My Latin is not sufficient to render the phrase to the left (I see Polish Eagle = Aquila Polona). But it was signed the Dragon.
Hmmm. Interesting. I know the Transylvanians aided Jan III Sobieski. But I am supposing this is a reference to the Order of the Dragon, a monarchic chivalric order meant to defend Europe’s Christians (from the Ottoman Empire). This battle is a good 100 years after Vlad Tepes (“The Impaler”) aka known as Dracula, son of the Dragon (Vlad II). Vlad II was a member of the Order of the Dragon, but his son Vlad Tepes was not a member of the order. So my thesis is that Jan III Sobieski was a member of the monarchic Order or the Dragon. Note that Wladyslaw II (Jagiellonian dynasty — possible Columbus grandfather) was also a member. So perhaps there was a strong connection of this chivalric order to the kings of Poland.
So here are a list of (source: Wikipedia) …
Monarchic Chivalric Orders:
- Late medieval monarchical orders (14th & 15th centuries attached to a monarch):
- Order of Saint George, founded by Charles I of Hungary in 1325
- Order of the Band, founded by Alfonso XI of Castile in ca. 1330
- Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III of England in 1348
- Order of the Star, founded by John II of France in 1351
- Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, founded by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy in 1362.
- Order of the Ermine, founded by John V, Duke of Brittany in 1381: 1st order to accept Women.
- Order of the Dragon, founded by Sigismund of Hungary in 1408.
- Order of the Golden Fleece, founded by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430
- Order of St Michel, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469
- Post-medieval foundations of chivalric orders:
- Order of Saint Stephen (1561)
- Order of the Holy Spirit (1578)
- Blood of Jesus Christ (military order) (1608)
- Order of the Thistle (1687)
- Order of Saint Louis (1694)
- Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary (1764)
- Order of St. Patrick (1783)
- Order of Saint Joseph (1807)
- Monarchical orders whose monarch no longer reigns but continues to bestow the order:
- Order of the Golden Fleece (Austrian branch)
- Order of the Holy Spirit
- Order of Prince Danilo I (Montenegro)
- Order of Saint Peter (Cetinje)
- Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception (Bavaria)
- Order of the Crown (Romania)
- Order of Carol I (Romania)
- Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa (Portugal)
- Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George (Two Sicilies)
- Order of the Eagle of Georgia (Georgia)